Choosing a programming language

We have already figured out the directions of development: frontend, backend and fullback. If you want to refresh your memory, then here is the link.

In this article we will talk about choosing a programming language to study. But before moving on to programming languages, let's get acquainted with a few definitions.

A compiled programming language is a programming language in which the source code of a program is converted into machine code for direct execution by the central processor. 

An interpreted programming language is a programming language in which the source code of a program is not converted into machine code, but is executed using a special interpreter program.

A multi—paradigm programming language is a programming language that supports several programming paradigms, that is, different ways of describing and solving problems. For example, such a language can combine elements of imperative, functional, logical and object-oriented programming. I will devote a separate article to this topic.

Cross-platform applications are applications that are written in the same programming language, but they work on several operating systems and devices at once.

Levels of programming languages

I distinguish three levels of programming languages:

1. Low. These are programming languages that are similar in syntax to the processor's machine code, but mnemonic notation is used instead of binary instructions. 

Programs written in languages of this level need to be adapted to different processor architectures. Each architecture has its own set of instructions.

Such languages are designed for direct interaction with the hardware of the device.

2. Borderline. Such languages allow flexible control of computer resources. They have an intuitive syntax, but require knowledge from the developer in the field of OS synchronization primitives, memory devices and other system components.

3. High. These programming languages hide the details of the computer from the developer and allow you to write code in a more natural and understandable way. For example, a programmer does not need to worry about how memory is allocated and released during the operation of the program. 

Programming languages

In this section I will look at the main programming languages and their capabilities. The division of languages will be according to the levels that I described above.

High-level programming languages


It is an interpreted programming language. It is possible to write programs on it both in a procedural style and according to the principles of OOP. The syntax of programs is close to natural language, so it is easy to learn, especially if you are familiar with English.

Initially, this language did not assume strict typing, but in recent versions it was added, but it is not mandatory. 

This language is widely used in scientific computing, machine learning, data analysis, web development and other fields.


It is a compiled programming language with strict static typing. 

It is based on the concept of object-oriented programming (OOP). 

It supports multithreading and cross-platform solutions can be written on it. 

This language is widely used for the development of enterprise applications, web services and other IT solutions.


It is a multi-paradigm programming language that is used to create dynamic and interactive web pages, mobile applications and other software products. 

It supports object-oriented, imperative and functional programming styles, as well as the ability to work with various application objects. 

This language can work not only on the client side, but also on the server side. An environment was created for this Node.js . 


It is a multi-paradigm compiled general-purpose programming language. 

Created by Apple to develop native iOS and macOS applications.


It is a modern programming language that was created by JetBrains as an alternative to Java. 

It runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) platform and is compatible with Java code. 

Kotlin has a number of advantages, such as static typing, object orientation, functional programming and multi-paradigm support. 

This language is widely used for Android application development, as well as for web development, scientific computing and other fields.


It is a compiled general-purpose programming language. 

He is a part of .NET Framework, which provides a rich set of libraries and tools for developing applications of various types: web applications, mobile applications, games, scientific computing, etc

Borderline programming languages


It is a compiled general-purpose programming language with weak static data typing. 

It allows you to work directly with computer memory and manage hardware resources.

The language has a simple and concise syntax that is easy to read and write. 

It is widely used for the development of operating systems, device drivers, system software and embedded systems.


It is a compiled, statically typed general-purpose programming language. 

It was designed as an extension of the C language with the addition of object-oriented and generalized programming capabilities. 

C++ is widely used to develop high-performance and reliable applications such as operating systems, databases, games, graphical interfaces and control systems. 

It supports many programming paradigms, such as procedural, object, functional, and metaprogramming.

It has a rich standard library that provides many useful components.


It is a multi-paradigm compiled general-purpose programming language that combines the capabilities of functional and procedural approaches with an object system based on types. 

It is suitable for system programming, in particular, it is considered as a promising language for developing operating system kernels. 

You can create highly efficient web applications on it. 

Rust is comparable in speed and capabilities to C++/C, but it provides greater security when working with memory, which is provided by the ownership and borrowing mechanisms built into the language.

Low-level programming languages

There are several low-level languages, but, in my opinion, Assembler is the leader among them.

Assembly language is a low—level imperative language that is used to represent processor commands in a human-readable form. 

It allows the programmer to access directly the registers, memory and I/O ports of the machine. 

This language has advantages in the speed and efficiency of program execution, but also has disadvantages in the complexity of writing and debugging code, as well as limited portability between different processor architectures.

There are 2 areas in which you just have to know this language:

1. development of operating systems;

2. Reverse application development (Reverse Engineering).

Choosing a language

The choice of language depends on your desires.

If you want to enter the world of AI, then choose Python. It is simple, a huge number of libraries have been written for it, both for machine learning and data analysis, and for full-fledged web development.

If you want to develop web and cross-platform mobile applications, then choose JavaScript. Here you will make a backend on Node.js, and a web application on React.js, for which a large number of frameworks have been developed. When you master React.js, then you can switch to ReactNative and develop cross-platform mobile applications.

If you want a universal language, then take a closer look at Rust. It is a young, but very rapidly developing programming language. He has an active community and excellent documentation. He absorbed all the advantages of C, C++ and other languages, but saved programmers from unnecessary headaches. At the moment, Rust has a weak frontend. Gui libraries are under active development. But in the near future, this situation will change and stable GUI Frameworks written in Rust will appear.

If you want to develop games, then start by learning C++ or C#, in which the main game engines are written. 


It is important to understand that a programming language is a tool that is chosen for solving a specific task. You can start by learning one language, and after 5 years you will use several languages at once. This is absolutely normal. No need to get hung up on a specific language. 

PS: If you need a mentor on the way to becoming a programmer, then I am always at your service.



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